During the Middle Ages, i.e. the "Dark" Ages, man's worldview was largely dominated by mysticism, irrationality, and collectivism. The universe was widely perceived as epistemologically unknowable and metaphysically malevolent, dooming man to suffering and tragedy. Given the widespread political and social instability, as well as the ravages of unstoppable plagues and warmongering nations, such conclusions were not totally unreasonable. The Enlightenment and its corollary, the Scientific Revolution, delivered western civilization from the Dark Ages into an age of reason, science, and individualism. What was once perceived as unknowable, uncertain, and malevolent, became knowable, certain, and benevolent. The universe became a place where man could flourish, instead of rot in his own misery. As science took hold, the world seemingly became more knowable, more livable, and more suitable for the pursuit of human desires and happiness. This rational, scientific,and individualist worldview was reborn in the Scientific Revolution, and its subsequent development of technology.
"In Defense Of Technology,"
The Intellectual Standard: Vol. 2
, Article 4.
Available at: http://digitalcommons.iwu.edu/tis/vol2/iss2/4