The Color and Texture of Hope: Some Preliminary Findings and Implications for Hope Theory and Counseling Among Diverse Racial/Ethnic Groups

Edward C. Chang, University of Michigan - Ann Arbor
Kira Hudson Banks, Illinois Wesleyan University

This journal is published by the American Psychological Association (APA). This article may not exactly replicate the final version published in the APA journal. It is not the copy of record. More information about the journal is online at The DOI of this article is 10.1037/1099-9809.13.2.94.


For decades, researchers have been interested in identifying individual-differences variables that are linked to adjustment. One variable, which is believed not only to represent an important individual-differences predictor of a range of adaptive outcomes but also to have important implications for counseling students, is hope (Synder, 1995).