China's internal condition immediately following the end of Japanese occupation was complicated and precarious. The conflicting interests of the Kuomintang and the Communists were pushing the nation into civil war and pressure from the United States only hastened the collapse of an already weak: internal structure. The Japanese occupation of China during the war had significant implications and affected the political fortunes of the Kuomintang and the Communists in diverse ways.
Initially, the War of Resistance against Japan promoted nationalism and Chiang Kai-shek and the Chinese Communists united for the good of the nation. This unity, however, was short lived and the two political factions were never able to compromise on a political policy that would unify and help to democratize modem China. Ambitious in their goals and equipped with strong leadership, the Communists chose to pursue a path of resistance, as well as one of social revolution. The opportunity to utilize the incursion of the Japanese began in north China. Experienced with guerilla warfare, the Communists were able to organize a resistance movement in the countryside behind enemy lines. As a result of their mobilization and effective use of the rural masses by the end of the World War II the Communists could claim control of an area occupied by nearly 95 million people.
Grad '01, Elizabeth, "The Urban Response to the Rural Land Reform During the Chinese Civil War: 1945-1949" (2001). Honors Projects, History. 15.