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Why is it that in countries such as Canada and the United States women are able to prosecute their husbands for rape, yet in countries such as Sudan, females are genitally mutilated with no recourse, in Brazil, violence against women is difficult to prosecute, and in India many woman have no choice concerning their marriage partner? What accounts for this variation? Is the source of this variation rooted in the political participation of women or does the variation stem from socio-economic modernization? Is bodily control determined by the ideological affiliations of parties within the state? This paper seeks to answer these questions using cross-national data drawn from twenty countries.


Political Science