Effects ofcardiorespiratory fitness on cognition were assessed for 72 young adults. Participants completed an executive control task while behavioral and neuroelectric indices ofcognition were obtained. Behavioral (reaction time, response accuracy) and neuroelectric (P3 amplitude, P3 latency) measures ofcognitive function and processing were examined in relation to fitness to determine the unique influence offitness on cognition. A graded maximal exercise test was used to measure fitness by assessing maximal oxygen consumption. Higher fitness was associated with a smaller difference in P3 amplitude across expectancies as well as a longer P3 latency at the central midline site, suggesting a relationship between fitness and neural indices ofcertain cognitive processes. However, fitness did not exhibit a unique relationship with behavioral indices ofcognition. These findings suggest that while fitness may have beneficial effects on some executive control functions, these effects may not be manifest in improved expectancy effects in the behavior ofhealthy young adults.



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