Res Publica - Journal of Undergraduate Research


The commemoration of 200 years of Peruvian independence brings the question if the republic is really free and sovereign. Even though Peru is formally a democracy, it is weak and not yet consolidated. Satisfaction with democracy is low, and many analysts claim that it already died in the 1990s. In a narrow sense, Peruvian democracy is in danger because of the personalistic nature of the political parties. This study defends the argument that parties in Peru are weak. Specifically, it focuses on the shift from traditional to proto-parties. Traditional parties failed in their political role, and, therefore, new anti-elite and personalistic vehicles started to gain power in politics. The main hypothesis is that the parties are weak because they are not properly organized, and have been controlled by self-interested individuals. Specifically, there is an exploration of the role and development of diverse groups of parties in the various presidential elections from 1980 to 2021. There is also a close look at urbanization rates per party, as parties represent a wide variety of individuals, and it is crucial to understand where the parties get their votes from. By knowing the success or failure of specific parties, their presence or absence in socio-political scenarios, their demographic focus, their presidential journey through the years, and their current situation, this paper shows that Peruvian parties are weak and in need of reform. Introduction