The focus ofthis paper is beyond a critique of U.S. immigration law and the 4 regions' judicial systems, although their roles as they relate to gang activities in these areas will be assessed. Nor is this paper a comprehensive ethnographic account of gang life and gang structure in general. Instead the purpose of this study is to synthesize the theoretical literature of globalization and apply it to what we know about specific gangs such as MS-13 and M-18 in North and Central America.


International and Area Studies